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UNALIENABLE RIGHTS

Written by Joanne Reed

According to the American Declaration of Independence, every person has the unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Unfortunately, history is full of examples where theory and practice are two different things.

Right now, America is a very divided country with violence caused by racial tensions making headline news. Discrimination based on race in the United States has existed since the colonial era, where owning slaves was legally permitted by law. Over the years formal racial discrimination has been banned thanks to the activism of minority groups who fought for equality in legislation and civil rights. In the 20th century racial discrimination is illegal and it is perceived as being socially and morally unacceptable, but the demonstrations across many cities in the Unites States following the death of George Floyd are showing us that, although progress has been made, there is still a long way to go to allow everyone the rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.  

“I have a dream”

— Martin Luther King Jr.

In order to understand the present and be better prepared to take effective, long-lasting action, we need to know the history behind it all. Let’s take a quick trip down ‘History Lane’ right to the start of all of this…

The American Declaration of Independence 

According to the American Declaration of Independence every person has the unalienable Rights of Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness. Unfortunately, history is full of examples where theory and practice are two different things. 

Thomas Jefferson, who was the President of the United States from 1801 to 1809, wrote the US Declaration of Independence in 1776 near the beginning of the American Revolution. The second paragraph of the United States Declaration of Independence starts as follows: 

“We hold those truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by the Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are, Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.” 

Despite the libertarian rhetoric that followed the Declaration of Independence, liberty and equality became more and more muted in real life; people started realizing that even if the constitution clearly declared that all men are created equal, in real life some men were more equal than others. As the American people fought for independence against British tyranny and drafted their Declaration of Independence, one can only notice the obvious contradiction between advocating liberty on one hand and owning slaves on the other. Widespread talk of liberty gave slaves high expectations for a better future and assumed that the Declaration of Independence would also apply to them. However, the slaves soon realized that the revolutionary rhetoric of the Founding Fathers did not include enslaved black people. The Declaration of Independence promised, on paper, liberty for all men but failed to put an end to an institution that thrived on depriving people of their freedoms. [Extract from Chapter 7 of my book “This Is Your Quest”].

Slavery in America 

Slavery in America began in 1619 when the first African slaves were brought to the North American Colony to aid the production of crops such as tobacco and cotton. Slavery was practiced throughout the American colonies in the 17th and 18th centuries.

The movement to abolish slavery started in Europe and its colonies during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and encouraged free blacks and white supporters of the black cause in the Northern United States to start their own movement to emancipate slaves in the South. On 6 November 1860, Abraham Lincoln, known for his “free soil” stance of opposing both slavery and abolitionism, was elected President of the United States; within three months, seven Southern states had seceded to form the Confederate States of America – four more would follow leading to the Civil War (1861-65).  The war bankrupted much of the South, left its roads, farms, and factories in ruins and all but wiped out an entire generation of men with a death toll of more than 620,000 men, more than any other war in the American history.

Though Lincoln’s anti-slavery views were well established, the Central Union’s aim at first was not to abolish slavery but to preserve the United States as a nation. Abolition became a war aim only later. On 1 January 1863 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation:

“slaves within the states, or designated part of a state … in rebellion … shall be then and forever free.”

—Abraham Lincoln

The 13th Amendment of the Constitution abolished slavery in the United States; it was passed by Congress on 31 January 1865 and ratified on 6 December 1865. The 13th Amendment states:

“Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” 

Former slaves received the right to citizenship and “equal protection” under the Constitution in the 14th Amendment and the right to vote in the 15th Amendment, but the provisions of the Constitution were often ignored or violated. Despite seeing an unprecedented degree of black participation in American political life, African American rights were infringed upon for many years to come even after the official abolition of slavery; the re-birth of white supremacy groups such as the Ku Klux Klan in the South made it even more difficult for African American to make headway . [Extract from Chapter 7 – page 70 of my book “This Is Your Quest”].

It is worth pointing out here that despite what most people believe slavery should not be automatically associated with ethnicity. Slavery has existed since the beginning of time; the color of someone’s skin was not a key factor to determine whether that person could find himself in the unfortunate position of being a slave or being a master instead. Those who became slaves were chosen because of their vulnerability compared to another dominant group and not because of the color of their skin. Since the beginning of times, Europeans enslaved other Europeans, Asians enslaved other Asians, Africans enslaved other Africans and Arabs enslaved other Arabs. A slave is a person who is the chattel or property of another. The etymology of the word “slave” finds its origin in the medieval Latin word “sclavus,” originally “Slav” because of the many Slavs sold into slavery by conquering people [Extract from Chapter 7 – page 76 of my book “This Is Your Quest”].

Jim Crow Laws 

From the late 1870s, Southern State legislatures passed laws requiring the separation of whites from persons of color in public transportation and schools. The segregation principle was extended to parks, cemeteries, churches, hospitals, theaters and restaurants in an effort to prevent any contact between blacks and whites as equals.  The facilities allocated to the blacks were usually inferior to facilities to white people although the laws called for the separate facilities to be of equal quality, advocating the concept of “separate but equal”. ‘Jim Crow’ has long been a derogatory slang term for a black man, making it a fitting name for the laws that enforced discrimination in the Southern States between black and white people.

In the 20th century, Jim Crow laws continued to govern life in America, prohibiting black and white interaction. Blacks who violated these laws could be physically beaten by whites without reprisal; lynching occurred with startling frequency when blacks violated Jim Crow Laws. 

The Civil Rights Movement

Resistance to the lingering racism and discrimination in the United States that began during the slavery era would lead to the civil rights movement of the 1960s; it would force Americans to confront contradictions between practices of racial segregation with the concept of equality and freedom proclaimed in the Declaration of Independence.  The American Civil Rights movement started in the mid-1950s and was ignited by Rosa Parks who refused to give up her seat on a public bus to a white man. 

This led to mass protests against racial segregation and discrimination, mainly in the Southern states. Through these nonviolent protests, the civil rights movement broke the pattern of public facilities being segregated by race and achieved the most important breakthrough in equal rights legislation for African Americans, with the enactment of the Civil Rights Act 1964.

Two key figures emerged during the Civil Rights movement, Dr Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X. Martin Luther King Jr was born in Atlanta Georgia on 15 January 1929. He was educated, religious, organized and participated in a series of peaceful protests that eventually changed many equality-focused laws. Martin Luther King Jr was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 and on 4th April 1968, was shot and killed while in Memphis, Tennessee. Although his life ended that day, the work he has accomplished changed the nation.

“Martin Luther King and Malcolm X Waiting for Press Conference” by Marion S. Trikosko, March 26, 1964

Martin Luther King nonviolent philosophy is best illustrated by the following quote

A riot is the language of the unheardInjustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. Darkness cannot drive out darkness, only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate, only love can do that. The past is prophetic in that it asserts loudly that wars are poor chisels for carving out peaceful tomorrow.”

—Martin Luther King

Malcolm X was born on 19 May 1925, he was an African American Muslim minister and human rights activist who was also a popular figure during the civil rights movement. A naturally gifted orator, Malcolm X exhorted blacks to cast off the shackles of racism by any means necessary.  He was also a prominent spokesperson for the Nation of Islam. On March 1964, he broke his relationship with the Nation of Islam as he became disillusioned by its rigid teachings.  Less than a year later, Malcolm X was assassinated on 19 February 1965.

It is criminal to teach a man not to defend himself. I always believed that clashes between those who want freedom, justice and equality for everyone and who those who want to continue the system of exploitation are inevitable. People should fight for equality and liberation of the black people by any means necessary.”

—Malcolm X

Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X often clashed over the best tactics to end racial discrimination and prejudice. They had very different approaches to the Civil Rights Movement. King was advocating non-violent civil disobedience protests as the means to attack racial prejudice in America, whilst Malcolm X called for a more militant approach, achieving equality and black liberation by any means necessary. 

Malcolm X was very critical of King’s non-violent approach believing King’s actions to be too slow moving and too accommodating to the white Americans. King was also very vocal about Malcolm X’s approach, beliving that:

Fiery demagogic oratory in the black ghettos, urging negroes to arm themselves and prepare to engage in violence, can reap nothing but grief.”

—Martin Luther King

Despite those differences, both men admired and respected each other because ultimately, they were fighting for the same cause. Those two very different  approaches to a common cause did not impact the fight for equality in a negative manner, on the contrary, it demonstrated to the white Americans what a radical and violent approach looks like, making Martin Luther King’s approach and his moderate position a more acceptable alternative.

Martin Luther King and Malcolm X met briefly on 25th March 1964, both were on Capitol Hill watching a Senate hearing regarding legislation aimed at ending segregation in public places and race discrimination in employment. The bill had been proposed by President John F Kennedy following intense lobbying by Martin Lurther King and was now being championed through congress by President Lyndon Johnson. After heated debates and fierce opposition from Southern members of Congress, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed and signed into law on 2 July 1964. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. No longer could blacks and other minorities be denied service simply based on the color of their skin.

It is around that time, that Malcolm X started to adopt a more conciliatory approach towards the fight for equality, he made the following statement in April 1964:

I was not less angry than I had been, but at the same time the true brotherhood I had seen had influenced me to recognize that anger can blind human vision.”

—Malcolm X


I have a dream…

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Categories
Law Self-Help/Life Coaching

POLYGAMY: IMPACT ON THE AFRICAN SOCIETY

Written by Francis Nwordu

In Africa, the practice of polygamy strives because most Africans believe that a man is supposed to have more than one wife under his control, in order to show that he is more superior than women in the society. It impacts negatively on society and creates poverty in the system.

Polygamy is one practice that has been embraced by many parts of the world in the present and past day social system. Emily Yoffe suggests, it is a way-of-life that enjoys an age-long history, and it accepted in different parts of the world according to the cultural variations. This way-of-life has occurred in African society when one man marries more than one woman. The practice of polygamy is quite pronounced in African cultures and accepted, while several social groups are refusing its ideology. The custom theory of the idea has been a traditional concept. In fact, polygamy is one of the practices that popularly observes as a common focus in the society of Africa. This very integral part of the African tradition or norm, only transformed to a large extent when some African cultures embraced Christianity as a result of copying Western culture in some situations. According to scielo.org citing, Kyomo and Selvan (2004:35) suggest that polygamy as an issue has been the preoccupation among African theologians and scholars, right from the 1960s, and it is still a relevant argument till to date.

In Africa, the practice of polygamy strives because most Africans believe that a man is supposed to have more than one wife under his control in order to show that he is more superior than women in the society. Usually, African culture influences many emphases on the fact that men are strong enough and capable of taking care of a large number of women.

Before Islam and Christianity arrived in Africa, the country had a religion that was popular and known in the conventional world as the African Traditional Religion (ATR). This religion recognizes polygamy as an acceptable practice among its adherents. Islam is one of the first foreign religions established in African society, especially in the Northern part of the continent. The polygamy as an aspect of religion made it far too easy for most Africans to accept the beliefs of Islam. With the rise of Christianity, many years later, Islam religion had been rooting in some African societies, as a result of trade and other activities. Thus, it caused to change people’s viewpoints about polygamy as a custom. Most Africans had to decide between continuing with the practice of marrying more than one woman as a way of life or accepting the dictates and the tenets of the new religion that came along with westernization. However, people will still agree that polygamy as a way-of-life in Africa, and it will always be a norm because many African societies, especially the rural settlements among them, still have strong adherents of the African Traditional Religion (ATR). As a way-of-life, certain benefits have derived from the practice of one man having to live or get married to more than one woman. When a man decides to have more than one wife, he enjoys the company of his wives and the members of the family to a certain extent. Another gain that can derive from having more than one wife in a marriage tradition is that there may be an increase in both human and material resources for the family, in time to come. This is possible because where you have so many people as members of a given family, there is a likelihood of having an abundance of both human and material resources.

Polygamy also has its pitfalls. Elbert Hubbard was a popular American writer who lived from 1856 to 1915 described in his words that “Polygamy is an endeavor to get more out of life there is in it.” This quest of man to get more from life comes with some consequences. 

Overpopulation is one of the most notable disadvantages of polygamy. It can arise as one of the consequences of having numerous wives. This is guaranteed to happen since every woman who is married to a man desires to have her own kids in order to be counted as a mother in society and be respected by all people. Another unfavorable effect of polygamy is that it may lead a man to poverty if the man is not capable of handling the financial pressure and challenges that come along in keeping a large family. Most households in Africa cannot afford three square meals a day as a result of tough economic situations or poor system conditions.

Most Africans need better orientation on why polygamy has to be controlled as a practice if the consequences have an impact on various African societies. The general public has to gain appropriate education regarding the dangers of having more than one wife and how it can be abusive to them and society. The governments of various African countries should intensify the effort to be aimed at controlling or checkmating the consequences of practicing polygamy, as in such,

  • Put adequate measures to curb or control the rate at which men go about marrying more wives than they can be able to afford and handle. 
  • Set up an agency that will be in charge of informing people and educating them on the need to maintain a small family based on their financial capacity. 
  • Create employment opportunities to enable people to engage in gainful ventures and be employed.

Apart from government involvement, religious bodies of a country must also play a significant role in curbing the negative impact of polygamy. Although they must counsel men in the society of how having one wife and a small family can allow them to ease their social depression. It will help both the man and all the members of his family to live a happy life. When a man is able to manage or succeed in taking care of his wife and his children, society, in general, will be prosperous and stable. And also, educational institutions and other organizations must consider this issue to overcome the negative results of polygamy.

In a nutshell, we can say that since polygamy has always been a regular practice in various African societies, any individuals that do not have resources to take care of a large family must follow up with thorough advice against going into it. The authorities in charge of states, religious bodies, and other organizations must play active roles in managing the impact on African society in a responsible procedure.

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Categories
Law

CHILD ABUSE AND THE ROLE OF TEACHERS

Written by Eleena Mendis

As soon as you read the topic, I know you think to yourself “Is it another article of child abuse?” Are you fed up of reading enough depressing stories? Have you ever thought of rethinking the idea of child abuse and your own role-play in it? Now it is time to realize. 

In consideration of child care, Child Abuse has been a much-needed topic. Also, understanding the proper idea of child abuse is very important. Every single day, many children suffer due to the lack of knowledge about child abuse of parents, caregivers, teachers, or adults. Society thinks child abuse is sexual abuse or brutal physical violence, but it can be any sort of maltreatment towards children. 

World Health Organization: Nearly 3 in 4 children—or 300 million children—aged 2–4 years regularly suffer physical punishment and or psychological violence at the hands of parents and caregivers.

Child abuse is a vast area that can discuss with five main categories.

  • Physical abuse 

Physical abuse is any form of physical violence towards children. Unlike the sexual abuse, the reaction towards physical abuse is less because some areas of the world or some cultures have normalized physical punishments as a way of adapting children. When a child makes a mistake purposely or not, the parents or the adults or even teachers tend to punish them physically. For example, hitting is a regular physical punishment, especially in countries like Sri Lanka. That can physically hurt or harm as well as this can affect a child emotionally.

  • Physical neglect 

Physical neglect is when children are not receiving basic necessities such as care and healthy nutrition. Many children suffer without enough attention to their physical needs. As parents or caregivers, we need to provide them with a sufficient meal-plan as they need it to grow up healthily. At the same time, we need to uplift the standard of living for them to grow up in a safe environment. Physical neglect has rarely noticed as child abuse in our society. For example, child laborers and children dropped out of school are considered as physically neglected. It is crucial to create more awareness of these types of child abuse and to bring up conversations and solutions to ensure the physical needs of children.

  • Emotional or psychological abuse 

This term is a very harmful category of abuse that can leave scars behind throughout the lifetime of a child. When adults act in a dismissive and hostile manner towards children, that defined as abusing emotionally / psychologically. This sort of abusive behavior is a severe problem that has to investigate with proper attention. It is always not easy for children to reveal what is emotional abuse, or in most of the cases, they do not have the knowledge to realize that how they got abused emotionally. Berating or intentionally scaring children can also lead to emotional or psychological abuse.

  • Emotional or psychological neglect 

Positive attention, love, and caring is a must in parenting. Lack of positive attention, love, and security for children is emotional or psychological neglect. For example, violence between parents or caregivers affects children immensely. Ignorance of children affects their mental health and happiness.

  • Sexual abuse 

Forceful intercourse with children or even with the consent of a child declared as an abusive sexual act under child abuse. It can be a traumatic experience that will affect a child’s mental state permanently. Physical pain, as well as physical illnesses, could occur due to sexual abuse. Also, children could be easily uncovered to sexual diseases and child pregnancies by child abuse.

As you see, “Negligence” is very easily missed out of the scope of child abuse, while it plays a huge role in it. Sexual abuse is not the only type of abuse that society needs to pay attention to in this condition. However, the above mentioning of types of abuse is harmful to society and children overall. We might be parents, teachers, caregivers to some children, or we may not, yet as adults, it is our responsibility to protect children from violence, abuse, and exploitation. Child marriage or cohabitation before the age of 18, child labor, female genital mutilation among the girls, and severe physical means of punishing children are some of the highlights that have taken the attention of the world. As in a personal view, I see a lot of cultural and religious backgrounds that discourage the ability to stand against the violence, abuse, or exploitation towards children.

World Health Organization: A child who is abused is more likely to abuse others as an adult so that violence is passed down from one generation to the next. It is therefore critical to break this cycle of violence, and in so doing, create positive multi-generational impacts.

The above statement clears the necessity of taking action to prevent child abuse because it works like a chain. It has practiced through abusersthemselves. Abusers, as well as victims, need special help to overcome mental instability. The number of cases reported in child sexual abuse is less than the actual number of cases taken place due to under-reporting and community codes of silence during the past decade. That is a major drawback in the struggle of child abuse that keeps encouraging abusers. We need to create more awareness as well as the self-confidence to raise in such situations. What is not recognized is the importance of reporting all kinds of abuse, and not only sexual abuse and above mentioned all five categories but everything else which relates to abusive measures. If we fail, then it can be seriously harmful to children equally.

Most of the parent’s and caregiver’s mind has settled to think about outsiders and strangers with regards of child abuse, and they try to keep their children away from the strangers while many of the cases occur within the family and close friends. At the same time, there are high possibilities of occurring child abuse from parents, caregivers, and teachers intentionally or unintentionally. That is a very tricky part of the struggle of overcoming child abuse since it is hardly noticed or reported while it seems to happen more often. From a teacher’s perspective, it is extremely important to have a good knowledge regarding child abuse to identify children undergone similar situations to help them immediately. First of all, they have to be very sensitive just like the children, because dealing with them is not as easy as you do with adults. Physical and emotional neglect and abuse can happen from many teachers than sexual abuse. Some of them tend to abuse children either way mentioned above because of personal grudges or dislikes towards the child or sometimes when the teacher is intolerant to take the right procedures with the child’s behavior or learning patterns. Teachers with a lack of patience can be harmful to children, and it is crucial to have the right knowledge, practice, and the mindset to become one.

Staying away from child abuse in any circumstances is defined as denying social responsibilities as a teacher. All the teachers have to be active members in identifying children undergone child abuse to help them overcome their situations. They must have the courage to stand up and speak up against it, even in situations that you come across seeing other teachers or parents being abusive. The teachers can observe children in order to figure out whether they are experiencing any kind of abuse,

  • Sleeping disorders 
  • Eating disorders 
  • Health situation (lack of nutrition)
  • Tidiness
  • Activeness
  • The way of responding to friends and teachers
  • Physical wounds
  • Scars or any other difficulty (ex. urinal infections or bleeding)

Then, they are able to talk with the child and the parents or caregivers to help the child or even to fetch them to any sort of mental or physical treatment for recovery. At the same time, it is your responsibility to take legal actions or encourage the parents, caregivers, or relevant parties to take action towards abusers. Even though this seems to be the last and the most difficult step of the process, it is the most crucial step to be taken towards the betterment of the world.  

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Categories
Law News

HOW INNOCENT PEOPLE CONFESS TO CRIMES

Written by Amandi Serena

Movies often depict criminals that are punished for their crimes and sent to jail but what’s the reality like? Currently, 2, 3 to 5% of prisoners in American jails are there because they confessed to crimes they did not commit.

We all have seen movies where the bad guys are sent to jail by police officers and investigators but do we ever stop and think about the mistakes made by the task force against innocents? Those mistakes often put innocents behind bars without any adequate reason. This recently caught my attention and I found out that it is more common than what we might think. In fact, a project called the ‘Innocence Project’ discovered that between 2.3% and 5% of all prisoners in American jails are innocent, which corresponds to about 120,000 people altogether. According to statistics, this is a serious problem and I believe we should learn more about how innocent people commit to crimes they did not commit, so let’s do it together.

The first question to ask would be how this may happen. Well, research shows that one of the major reasons is false confessions, i.e. confessing to crimes one has not committed (Leo, 2009). In other words, some people confirm their involvement in crimes they have not committed but are being accused of because they might want to redeem themselves from crimes or mistakes they might have done in the past and that they were not punished for and thus, would want to ‘make things right’ or also because they want to protect someone close to them. An example of this is the case of Mayra Rosales, also known as the “Half-Ton Killer”, who claimed to have killed her two-year-old nephew to protect her sister. Nevertheless, Mayra’s initial statement was disregarded as further investigations confirmed she could have not done it due to her burgeoning obesity.

From another perspective, police officers might be the ones to influence the interrogations or ask questions in a certain way because they are overinfluenced by what is known as confirmation bias. In other words, they might be biased to ‘hear what they want to hear’ and interpret the interrogations to confirm their assumptions. For example, nowadays, there is a widespread mentality that minority people are more likely to commit crimes and more specifically, individuals that live in the suburbs or that come from less privileged backgrounds. So, when police officers interrogate them they might already think they are guilty and perhaps shape the questions to confirm their beliefs. Similarly, the officers in charge might use a language or questioning that might lead people to confess.

These facts seem unacceptable if we think we live in a fair society, however, we should also be mindful that police officers are human too, and like every single one of us, they might make mistakes. There is no excuse for putting innocents in jail but what we should remember is that several studies have concluded that individuals in the task force are no better than civilians when it comes to detecting when people are lying. The only difference between the two is those police officers are more confident in following their hunches.

Nevertheless, this situation must change but the difficulty is that, especially in Asian countries, there are fewer laws to protect the so-called-criminals thus, they might be subject to both physical and psychological threats and never-ending hours of interrogations. As a consequence, this makes people more likely to confess to crimes they have not committed because they want the suffering and the torture to end. Likewise, after many hours of interrogation and harsh conditions, due to high levels of pressure, stress, anxiety, and pain, people might even start to think they are indeed guilty. This is particularly true for young people as they are more susceptible to confessing if put through highly stressful or traumatic experiences.

A widely used interrogation technique is the Reid technique, which is divided into three phases. In the first one, the police officers ask questions to assess changes in the behavior of the accused. If they think the person is lying, they move to phase two which consists of accusing the suspect and ignoring the suspect’s attempt to deny everything. Sometimes denial is even thought to be an admission of guilt. In the last phase, they might tell the person that they have witnesses to what has happened which might cause doubts in the head of the suspect and question the events they are being accused of. This is particularly true in the USA where police are permitted to lie and tell the suspects that they have witnesses ready to testify against them. 

One example is the case of Barry Laughman, a man suffering from mental health difficulties who was coerced into confessing to raping and murdering a neighbor after investigators had told him they found his fingerprints at the crime scene. Although his other neighbors offered an alibi, the police officers disregarded everything and put him behind bars for 16 years. Another piece of evidence the investigators claimed to have found was his blood at the crime scene, however, what’s important to note here is that Laughman’s blood type was B whereas the blood found at the crime scene was type A. However, they cajoled him to confess after they claimed that the difference in blood type was only due to bacterial degradation.

As seen in movies or read in books, only the bad guys are sent to prison making the job of the police officers and investigators easier with the presence of distinct cues such as changes in music or flashbacks that show the spectators what had happened before. Similarly, if either the suspects or police officers do engage with false confessions, viewers would be able to get a deeper understanding of their character. To illustrate, if the character being accused of crime uses a false confession, we would understand more regarding his or her morals and values whereas if it is used by the investigators, that would tell us about the morality of the police officers or the police department. 

Nevertheless, there are no cues in real life and, although some advancements have been made in this field, there is the need to constantly improve the jurisdiction system and find methods that are improved and the forefront to be able to only accuse guilty people.

In conclusion, there’s only one important question to ask: how can we make this better? How can we make sure justice is served for the bad guys and keep our loved ones at home if they are being accused of crimes they have not committed? To be honest, there is a long way to go but many reforms have been suggested amongst which recording all interrogations and limiting interrogation time and prohibiting the police to lie. With regard to the harsh Reid interrogation technique, some advancement in the interrogation style has been put forward. For instance, it has been suggested that police officers should not overly focus on behavioral assessment but give more importance to the ‘cognitive load’ that is asking open-ended questions to see if the suspects recant or can keep their stories straight. This new method has already been adopted in some countries such as England, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.

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